Larvacea (larvaceans, appendicularians)
Life > Eukaryotes > Opisthokonta > Metazoa
Bilateria > Deuterostomia >
Chordata > Tunicata
Three families, 14 genera and 68 species
worldwide, with all three families, 11 genera and 42 species that
that have broad distributions that include southern African seas.
There are no endemic species in the region.
Global figures are from
World Register of Marine
Three genera and 30 species worldwide,
with all genera and 21 species native to southern African seas, the high
proportion of species being due to most of them having very broad pelagic
One genus and two
species, both of which have broad distributions that include southern
Ten genera and 36 species worldwide,
with seven genera and 19 species that have broad pelagic distributions that
include southern African seas.
- Fenaux R., Bone Q, and Deibel D. 1998. Appendicularian
distribution and zoogeography, p. 251-264. In Q. Bone [ed.], The
biology of pelagic tunicates. Oxford University Press.
- Lazarus, B. I. and D. Dowler. 1979. Pelagic tunicata off the
west and south-west coasts of South Africa, 1964-1965. Fish.
Bull. S. Afr. 12:93-119.
- Van Zyl, R. P. 1960. A preliminary study of the salps and
doliolids off the west and south coasts of South Africa.
Investigational Rept. Div. Fisheries, Union of South Africa.
Text by Hamish Robertson